Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics.
Open Access


Download as PDF

Volume 2, Issue 2, Pp 12-20, 2024

DOI: 10.61784/wjmpv2n255


Casler Buelke


Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland.

Corresponding Author

Casler Buelke


Emulsions are often used as delivery systems for active ingredients due to their unique delivery properties. Multilayer emulsions form a thicker interface layer due to their multilayer structure, thereby improving the ability of the delivery carrier to resist external pressure, prolonging the digestion time of lipids, thereby effectively protecting the active ingredients, and achieving slow release of active ingredients through the rational design of the interface layer. Purpose of ingredients. This article introduces in detail the construction principles of multi-layer emulsions, the characteristics of the interfacial layer and the effects on the stability of the interfacial layer. It also reviews the application progress of multi-layer emulsions in food and related industries in recent years, with a view to providing new methods for the delivery of active ingredients ideas.


Emulsion; Multi-layer emulsion; Interface layer; Slow release; Application


Casler Buelke. Application and research progress of multi-layer emulsion delivery systems. World Journal of Mathematics and Physics. 2024, 2(2): 12-20. DOI: 10.61784/wjmpv2n255.


[1] Cicero A F G, Fogacci F, Colletti A. Food and plant bioactives for reducing cardiometabolic disease risk: An evidence based approach. Food & Function, 2017, 8(6): 2076-2088.

[2] Cicero A F G, Colletti A. Food and plant bioactives for reducing cardiometabolic disease: How does the evidence stack up?. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 2017, 69: 192-202.

[3] Davidov-Pardo G, Gumus C E, Mcclements D J. Lutein enriched emulsion based delivery systems: Influence of pH and temperature on physical and chemical stability. Food Chemistry, 2016, 196: 821-827.

[4] Mcclements D J, LI Y. Structured emulsion-based delivery systems: Controlling the digestion and release of lipophilic food components. Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, 2010, 159 (2): 213-228.

[5] Mcclements D J. Emulsion design to improve the delivery of functional lipophilic components. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, 2010, 1: 241-269.

[6] Sagalowicz L, Leser M E. Delivery systems for liquid food products. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 2010, 15(1/2): 61-72.

[7] Tan C, Wang J, Sun B G. Biopolymer-liposome hybrid systems for controlled delivery of bioactive compounds: Recent advances. Biotechnology Advances, 2021, 48: 107727.

[8] Bertoncarabin C C, Ropers M H, Genot C. Lipid oxidation in oil-in-water emulsions: Involvement of the interfacial layer. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 2014, 13(5): 945-977.

[9] Waraho T, Mcclements D J, Decker E A. Mechanisms of lipid oxidation in food dispersions. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 2011, 22(1): 3-13.

[10] Acevedo Fani A, Silva H D, Soliva Fortuny R. Formation, stability and antioxidant activity of food grade multilayer emulsions containing resveratrol. Food Hydrocolloids, 2017, 71: 207-215.

[11] Silva H D, Beldíková E, Poejo J. Evaluating the effect of chitosan layer on bioaccessibility and cellular uptake of curcumin nanoemulsions. Journal of Food Engineering, 2019, 243: 89-100.

[12] Tan C, Mcclements D J. Application of advanced emulsion technology in the food industry: A review and critical evaluation. Foods, 2021, 10(4): 812.

[13] Maldonado-Valderrama J, Patino J M R. Interfacial rheology of protein-surfactant mixtures. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 2010, 15(4): 271-282.

[14] Cai Z X, Wei Y, Shi A M. Correlation between interfacial layer properties and physical stability of food emulsions: Current trends, challenges, strategies, and further perspectives. Advancesin Colloid and Interface Science, 2023, 313: 102863.

[15] Damodaran S. Protein stabilization of emulsions and foams. Journal of Food Science, 2006, 70(3): R54-R66.

[16] Guzey D, Mcclements D J. Formation, stability and properties of multilayer emulsions for application in the food industry. Advancesin Colloid and Interface Science, 2006, 128-130: 227-248.

[17] Dalgleish D G. Adsorption of protein and the stability of emulsions. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 1997, 8(1): 1-6.

[18] Li R, Wang X B, Liu J N. Relationship between molecular flexibility and emulsifying properties of soy protein isolate-glucose conjugates. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 2019, 67 (14): 4089-4097.

[19] Tang C H. Emulsifying properties of soy proteins: A critical review with emphasis on the role of conformational flexibility. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 2017, 57(12): 2636 2679.

[20] Fang S, Zhao X J, Liu Y M. Fabricating multilayer emulsions by using OSA starch and chitosan suitable for spray drying: Application in the encapsulation of β carotene. Food Hydrocolloids, 2019, 93: 102-110.

[21] Silva H D, Poejo J, Pinheiro A C. Evaluating the behaviour of curcumin nanoemulsions and multilayer nanoemulsions during dynamic in vitro digestion. Journal of Functional Foods, 2018, 48: 605-613.

[22] Aoki T, Decker E A, Mcclements D J. Influence of environmental stresses on stability of O/W emulsions containing droplets stabilized by multilayered membranes produced by a layer-by-layer electrostatic deposition technique. Food Hydrocolloids, 2005, 19 (2): 209-220.

[23] Falsafi S R, Rostamabadi H, Samborska K. Protein-polysaccharide interactions for the fabrication of bioactive loaded nanocarriers: Chemical conjugates and physical complexes. Pharmacological Research, 2022, 178: 106164.

[24] Dickinson E. Flocculation of protein stabilized oilin water emulsions. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 2010, 81(1): 130-140.

[25] Han S W, Song H Y, Moon T W. Influence of emulsion interfacial membrane characteristics on Ostwald ripening in a model emulsion. Food Chemistry, 2018, 242: 91-97.

[26] Baumgarten K, Tighe B P. Viscous forces and bulk viscoelasticity near jamming. Soft Matter, 2017, 13(45): 8368-8378.

[27] TADROS T. Application of rheology for assessment and prediction of the long-term physical stability of emulsions. Advances in Colloidand Interface Science, 2004, 108-109: 227-258.

[28] MURRAY B S. Interfacial rheology of food emulsifiers and proteins. Current Opinion in Colloid & Interface Science, 2002, 7(5/6): 426-431.

[29] Leiva Vega J, Villalobos Carvajal R, Ferrari G. Influence of interfacial structure on physical stability and antioxidant activity of curcumin multilayer emulsions. Food and Bioproducts Processing, 2020, 121: 65-75.

[30] Gharsallaoui A, Saurel R, Chambin O. Utilisation of pectin coating to enhance spray dry stability of pea protein stabilised oil-in-water emulsions. Food Chemistry, 2010, 122(2): 447-454.

[31] Ye A Q, Singh H. Formation of multilayers at the interface of oilin-water emulsion via interactions between lactoferrin and β-lactoglobulin. Food Biophysics, 2007, 2(4): 125-132.

[32] Mcclements D J, Rao J J. Food-grade nanoemulsions: Formulation, fabrication, properties, performance, biological fate, and potential toxicity. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 2011, 51(4): 285-330.

[33] Ozturk B, Argin S, Ozilgen M. Nanoemulsion delivery systems for oil soluble vitamins: Influence of carrier oil type on lipid digestion and vitamin D3 bioaccessibility. Food Chemistry, 2015, 187: 499-506.

[34] Yang Z Y, Dai L, Sun Q J. Effect of molecular weight on the interfacial and emulsifying characteristics of rice glutelin hydrolysates. Food Hydrocolloids, 2022, 128: 107560.

[35] Cho Y H, Mcclements D J. Theoretical stability maps for guiding preparation of emulsions stabilized by protein polysaccharide interfacial complexes. Langmuir, 2009, 25(12): 6649-6657.

[36] Bassijeh A, Ansari S, Hosseini S M H. Astaxanthinencapsulation in multilayer emulsions stabilized by complex coacervates of whey protein isolate and Persian gum and its use as a natural colorant in a model beverage. Food Research International, 2020, 137: 109689.

[37] Fioramonti S A, Arzeni C, Pilosof A M R. Influence of freezing temperature and maltodextrin concentration on stability of linseed oil-in-water multilayer emulsions. Journal of Food Engineering, 2015, 156: 31-38.

[38] SHI F F, TIAN X J, MCCLEMENTS D J. Influence of molecular weight of an anionic marine polysaccharide (sulfated Fucan) on the stability and digestibility of multilayer emulsions: Establishment of structure function relationships. Food Hydrocolloids, 2021, 113: 106418.

[39] Fioramonti S A, Martinez M J, Pilosof A M R. Multilayer emulsions as a strategy for linseed oil microencapsulation: Effect of pH and alginate concentration. Food Hydrocolloids, 2015, 43: 8-17.

[40] Griffin K, Khouryieh H. Influence of electrostatic interactions on the formation and stability of multilayer fish oil in water emulsions stabilized by whey protein xanthan locust bean com plexes. Journal of Food Engineering, 2020, 277: 109893.

[41] Alexandraki S, Leontidis E. Towards the systematic design of multilayer O/W emulsions with tannic acid as an interfacial antioxidant. RSC Advances, 2021, 11(38): 23616-23626.

[42] Gasa-Falcon A, Acevedo-Fani A, Oms-Oliu G. Development, physical stability and bioaccessibility of β carotene enriched tertiary emulsions. Journal of Functional Foods, 2020, 64: 103615.

[43] Burgos-Díaz C, Hernández X, Wandersleben T. Influence of multilayer O/W emulsions stabilized by proteins from a novel lupin variety AluProt-CGNA and ionic polysaccharides on D. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 2018, 536: 234-241.

[44] Morales E, Burgos-Díaz C, Zú?iga R N. Effect of interfacial ionic layers on the food-grade O/W emulsion physical stability and astaxanthin retention during spray drying. Foods, 2021, 10(2): 312.

[45] Teixeira M I, Andrade L R, Farina M. Characterization of short chain fatty acid microcapsules produced by spray drying. Materials Science and Engineering: C, 2004, 24(5): 653-658.

[46] Mahmoodi Pour H, Marhamatizadeh M H, Fattahi H. Encapsulation of different types of probiotic bacteria within conventional/multilayer emulsion and its effect on the properties of probiotic yogurt. Journal of Food Quality, 2022, 2022: 1-12.

[47] Espinosa Sandoval L, Ochoa Martínez C, Ayala Aponte A. Polysaccharide based multilayer nano emulsions loaded with oregano oil: Production, characterization, and in vitro digestion assessment. Nanomaterials, 2021, 11(4): 878.

[48] Abbasi F, Samadi F, Jafari S M. Ultrasound assisted preparation of flaxseed oil nanoemulsions coated with alginate whey protein for targeted delivery of omega 3 fatty acids into the lower sections of gastrointestinal tract to enrich broiler meat. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 2019, 50: 208-217.

[49] Guzey D, Mcclements D J. Impact of electrostatic interactions on formation and stability of emulsions containing oil droplets coated by β-lactoglobulin-pectin complexes. Journal of Agriculturaland Food Chemistry, 2007, 55(2): 475-485.

[50] Liu C Z, Tan Y B, Xu Y. Formation, characterization, and application of chitosan/pectin stabilized multilayer emulsions as astaxanthin delivery systems. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2019, 140: 985-997.

[51] Muriel Mundo J L, Zhou H L, Tan Y B. Stabilization of soybean oil-in-water emulsions using polypeptide multilayers: Cationic polylysine and anionic polyglutamic acid. Food Research International, 2020, 137: 109304.

[52] Fincheira P, Rubilar O, Espinoza J. Formulation of a controlled release delivery carrier for volatile organic compounds using multilayer O/W emulsions to plant growth. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 2019, 580: 123738.

[53] Sheng Brai. Preparation and performance study of pH-responsive β-carotene double-layer emulsion. Guangzhou: South China University of Technology, 2018.

[54] Lin Chuanzhou. Research on the preparation of flaxseed oil multilayer emulsion and its microcapsules. Wuxi: Jiangnan University, 2015.

[55] Li Y, Hu M, Xiao H. Controlling the functional performance of emulsion-based delivery systems using multi-component biopolymer coatings. European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 2010, 76(1): 38-47.

[56] Zeeb B, Lopez-Pena C L, Weiss J. Controlling lipid digestion using enzyme induced crosslinking of biopolymer interfacial layers in multilayer emulsions. Food Hydrocolloids, 2015, 46: 125-133.

[57] Zhang L M, Yu D W, Regenstein J M. A comprehensive review on natural bioactive films with controlled release characteristics and their applications in foods and pharmaceuticals. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 2021, 112: 690-707.

[58] Zhang W L, Shu C, Chen Q Y. The multi-layer film system improved the release and retention properties of cinnamon essentialoiland its application as coating in inhibition to penicillium expansion of apple fruit. Food Chemistry, 2019, 299: 125109.

All published work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. sitemap
Copyright © 2017 - 2024 Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics.   All Rights Reserved.